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WORLD UNIVERSITY DIRECTORY is the one and only largest database of world educational institutions with geo data viz Longitude, Latitude, UTM, GPS, Lombard projection, map, etc, thereby enabling the browsers to know to distance between the searched University and the browsers.

CONFERENCE section lists the conferences that are to take place around the world.

WORLD UNIVERSITY DIRECTORY has the World's largest online database of universities, polytechnics, colleges, schools and online universities across globe. Discover the complete list of universities, and other educational institutions available in North America, South America, Europe, Asia, Australia, New Zealand, rest of the world and online.

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1Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro     
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro
Category: University
Brazil
South America, America
2Brock University     
Brock University
Category: University
Canada
North America, America
3Kuwait University      
Kuwait University
Category: University
Kuwait
Middle East , Asia
4Universite Bordeaux 1     
Universite Bordeaux 1
Category: University
France
Western Europe, Europe
5Australian National University     
Australian National University
Category: University
Australia
Australia and New Zealand, Oceanic
6RMIT University     
RMIT University
Category: University
Australia
Australia and New Zealand, Oceanic
7University of Cambridge     
University of Cambridge
Category: University
United Kingdom
Northern Europe, Europe
8University of Oxford     
University of Oxford
Category: University
United Kingdom
Northern Europe, Europe
9Stanford University    
Stanford University
Category: University
United States
North America, America
10Harvard University    
Harvard University
Category: University
United States
North America, America
11Massey University    
Massey University
Category: University
New Zealand
Australia and New Zealand, Oceanic
12University of Auckland    
University of Auckland
Category: University
New Zealand
Australia and New Zealand, Oceanic

1.
Distance Learning Balancing Your Education and Busy Lifestyle
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Accredited Online Universities Getting Good Grades
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Why Do You Want a Degree
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College Tuition Costs are Spiralling
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Five Steps To Choosing A College
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How To Improve Your Study Habits and Remember Better
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College Study Tips: Work Smarter, Not Harder
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How to Save Money While at College
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What is the Cost of College Tuition
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Academic Research on the Internet : There Is a Better Way
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Secrets Of Successfully Sitting Exams
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Online Education and Digital Divide
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Dont Graduate - What Students Should Know About College, But No One Ever Tells Them
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How Parents Can Help Allieviate The Stress of Getting Into College
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16.
The Distance Learning Explosion!
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17.
Too Much to Read and Too Little Time
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18.
9 Lessons for Success in College - That Actually Make Sense
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19.
Online Education Has The Power To Transform Lives And Fulfill Dreams
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20.
Getting Into College No Longer A Numbers Game!
Getting Into College No Longer A Numbers Game!Sending your kids to college has never been more difficult or more expensive, and outstanding grades no longer guar
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21.
Business and Academia!
Business and Academia!The driving factor of any university is to make the students understand the business needs of today and equip them for a better tomorrow.
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22.
Choose the Delivery Mode for your e-Learning Course
Choose the Delivery Mode for your e-Learning CourseThere are so many ways to deliver instruction online that the topic warrants its own lesson. In fact, deciding how
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23.
College Entertainment for Less
College Entertainment for LessMost of these activities are free or very cheap:

* Campus music or dance recitals

* College theater
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24.
Scholarships not Working for You Neither, Huh?
Scholarships not Working for You Neither, Huh?We're going to college, and we need cash. We have tuition and food, housing, books... like I said, we need cash. We hear
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25.
Discover How Online College Classes Work
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26.
Mind-Body Secrets for College Success - Six Key Secrets
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27.
Education - Let The Learning Begin!
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28.
Study More Effectively
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29.
The Pros and Cons of an Online College Degree
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1.
What Is the Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA)?
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2.
Finding a University if you want to Study Abroad
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Tempted to study abroad? Here are a few steps to start your study abroad process:
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3.
Student living in style
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International student accommodation
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5.
Visa Applications for the UK
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Student Visas for New Zealand
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International Student College Application Calendar
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Life-Long Students Make More Money
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How to Survive First Year Engineering
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Financial Aid for Online Education
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11.
Acing the SAT Exam
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Prepping for the new SAT I
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MRCP and MRCPCH ? Preparation for the Examination
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Most Colleges Require Letters Of Recommendation
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The All-Important College Application
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College Admissions Essays that Take 1st Place -A Personal Statement Checklist
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Submitting The College Application
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18.
Need Help Paying Back Student Loans?
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19.
Online College Programs ? How to Apply
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20.
Five Questions To Ask A Computer Training School Before Signing Up
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Quality Schools
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Consolidate Student Loans and Shop Online
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All About Grants for College Students
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How to Find Money for College Education
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Online Education: 57 Leading Institutions
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5 Leading Online Schools
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28.
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29.
Federal PLUS Loans
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Sample SimplePie Page

Alcohol health-warning labels: promises and challenges

Posted on 9 February 2017 | 6:00 pm

Editorial: public health in a time of uncertainty

Posted on 3 February 2017 | 6:00 pm

Edging closer to an effective reunion between town planners and public health professionals

<span class="paragraphSection">The year 2016 was one of milestones for the planning for health agenda. It began with the House of Lords National Policy for the Built Environment Committee report in February, which made several recommendations on health and the built environment.<sup><a href="#fdx011C1" class="reflinks">1</a></sup> NHS England announced 10 ‘Healthy New Towns’ in March (www.england.nhs.uk/ourwork/innovation/healthy-new-towns) and in the same month, the Local Government Association (LGA), Public Health England (PHE) and the Town and Country Planning Association (TCPA) published a report on tackling obesity through planning and development.<sup><a href="#fdx011C2" class="reflinks">2</a></sup> September saw the House of Commons Health Select Committee publish its report on public health post-2013 reforms, which made several recommendations for the planning system to take greater account of health impacts.<sup><a href="#fdx011C3" class="reflinks">3</a></sup> The year ended with the LGA's Housing Commission publishing its report to put housing at the heart of integrated health and care.<sup><a href="#fdx011C4" class="reflinks">4</a></sup></span>

Posted on 3 February 2017 | 6:00 pm

NICE public health guidance: healthy workplaces

Posted on 29 December 2016 | 6:00 pm

Global health, human rights and the challenge of neoliberal policies

<span class="paragraphSection">Global Health, Human Rights and the Challenge of Neoliberal Policies. ChapmanAudrey: CambridgeCambridge University Press, £79.99 (hardcover), 2016</span>

Posted on 22 November 2016 | 6:00 pm

Health inequalities: critical perspectives

<span class="paragraphSection">Health Inequalities: Critical Perspectives.SmithKatherine E., HillSarah, BambraClare. Oxford: Oxford University Press, £34.99 (softcover), 2016.</span>

Posted on 22 November 2016 | 6:00 pm

Contagious Communities: Medicine, Migration and the NHS in Post-War Britain

<span class="paragraphSection">Contagious Communities: Medicine, Migration and the NHS in Post-War Britain. BivinsRoberta. Oxford: Oxford University Press, £35.00, ISBN: 978-0-19-872528-2, 488 pp, 2015.</span>

Posted on 25 October 2016 | 7:00 pm

NICE Public Health Guidance Update

Posted on 1 September 2016 | 7:00 pm

Food safety behaviors observed in celebrity chefs across a variety of programs

<span class="paragraphSection"><div class="boxTitle">Abstract</div><div class="boxTitle">Background</div>Consumers obtain information about foodborne illness prevention from many sources, including television media. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a variety of cooking shows with celebrity chefs to understand their modeling of food safety behaviors.<div class="boxTitle">Methods</div>Cooking shows (100 episodes) were watched from 24 celebrity chefs preparing meat dishes. A tabulation of food safety behaviors was made for each show using a checklist.<div class="boxTitle">Results</div>Proper modeling of food safety behaviors was limited, with many incidences of errors. For example, although all chefs washed their hands at the beginning of cooking at least one dish, 88% did not wash (or were not shown washing) their hands after handling uncooked meat. This was compounded with many chefs who added food with their hands (79%) or ate while cooking (50%). Other poor behaviors included not using a thermometer (75%), using the same cutting board to prepare ready-to-eat items and uncooked meat (25%), and other hygiene issues such as touching hair (21%) or licking fingers (21%).<div class="boxTitle">Conclusions</div>This study suggests that there is a need for improvement in demonstrated and communicated food safety behaviors among professional chefs. It also suggests that public health professionals must work to mitigate the impact of poorly modeled behaviors.</span>

Posted on 9 April 2016 | 7:00 pm

Time-trends in rates of hospital admission of adolescents for violent, self-inflicted or drug/alcohol-related injury in England and Scotland, 2005–11: population-based analysis

<span class="paragraphSection"><div class="boxTitle">Abstract</div><div class="boxTitle">Background</div>Incidence of emergency admissions for violent injury in 10- to 18-year olds decreased in England and Scotland between 2005 and 2011, but more steeply in Scotland. To generate hypotheses about causes of these differences, we determined whether trends were consistent across admissions for three common types of adversity-related injury (violent, self-inflicted and drug/alcohol-related).<div class="boxTitle">Methods</div>Emergency admissions to NHS hospitals were captured using Hospital Episode Statistics and Scottish Morbidity Records. Adversity-related injury was defined using ICD-10 codes. Analyses were stratified by sex/age groups (10–12, 13–15 and 16–18 years) and adjusted for background trends in admissions for injury.<div class="boxTitle">Results</div>During 2005–11, rates declined in all sex/age groups in Scotland (reductions adjusted for background trends ranged from −22.0 to −103.7/100 000) and in girls and boys aged <16 years in England (adjusted reductions −12.0 to −49.9/100 000). However, these rates increased in England for both sexes aged 16–18 years (adjusted increases, girls 71.8/100 000; boys 28.0/100 000). However, throughout 2005–11 overall rates remained relatively similar in England and Scotland for both sexes aged <16 years, and remained higher in Scotland for both sexes aged 16–18 years.<div class="boxTitle">Conclusions</div>A greater decline in the rates of emergency admissions for adversity-related injury for adolescents in Scotland compared with England could signal more effective policies in Scotland for reducing violence, self-harm, or drug/alcohol misuse, particularly for 16 to 18-year olds.</span>

Posted on 20 March 2016 | 7:00 pm

Mapping the contribution of Allied Health Professions to the wider public health workforce: a rapid review of evidence-based interventions

<span class="paragraphSection"><div class="boxTitle">Abstract</div><div class="boxTitle">Objectives</div>The objective was to identify a selection of the best examples of the public health contributions by Allied Health Professionals (AHPs) in order to encourage a wider awareness and participation from that workforce to public health practice.<div class="boxTitle">Study design</div>A mapping exercise was used to identify evidence-based interventions that could lead to health improvements across a population.<div class="boxTitle">Methods</div>A rapid review was undertaken to identify evidence, followed by a survey of Allied Health Profession (AHP) practitioners and an expert panel consensus method to select the examples of AHP public health interventions.<div class="boxTitle">Results</div>Nine evidence-based interventions are identified and selected as examples of current AHP good practice. These examples represent a contribution to public health and include screening interventions, secondary prevention and risk management.<div class="boxTitle">Conclusions</div>This study contributes to a strategy for AHPs in public health by appraising the effectiveness and impact of some exemplar AHP practices that contribute to health improvement. There is a need for AHPs to measure the impact of their interventions and to demonstrate evidence of outcomes at population level.</span>

Posted on 16 March 2016 | 7:00 pm

Comparing online and telephone survey results in the context of a skin cancer prevention campaign evaluation

<span class="paragraphSection"><div class="boxTitle">Abstract</div><div class="boxTitle">Background</div>A large proportion of health promotion campaign evaluation research has historically been conducted via telephone surveys. However, there are concerns about the continued viability of this form of surveying in providing relevant and representative data. Online surveys are an increasingly popular alternative, and as such there is a need to assess the comparability between data collected using the two different methods to determine the implications for longitudinal comparisons. The present study compared these survey modes in the context of health promotion evaluation research.<div class="boxTitle">Methods</div>Data were collected via computer-assisted telephone interviewing and an online panel. In total, 688 and 606 respondents aged between 14 and 45 years completed the online and telephone surveys, respectively.<div class="boxTitle">Results</div>Online respondents demonstrated higher awareness of the advertisement, rated the advertisement as more personally relevant and had better behavioural outcomes compared with the telephone respondents.<div class="boxTitle">Conclusion</div>The results indicate significant differences between the telephone and online surveys on most measures used to assess the effectiveness of a health promotion advertising campaign. Health promotion practitioners could consider the combination of both methods to overcome the deterioration in telephone survey response rates and the likely differences in respondent outcomes.</span>

Posted on 9 March 2016 | 6:00 pm

An estimate of Lyme borreliosis incidence in Western Europe †

<span class="paragraphSection"><div class="boxTitle">Abstract</div><div class="boxTitle">Background</div>Lyme borreliosis (LB) is the most common zoonotic disease transmitted by ticks in the USA and Europe. This review aims to estimate the regional burden of LB in Western Europe. Data from previous publications will be used to calculate the mean incidence. The mean incidence rates will then be combined to estimate the regional burden and a population-weighted regional burden of disease based on the standardized incidence rate from the included studies and the total population at risk.<div class="boxTitle">Methods</div>Reviews and surveillance reports identified by the initial database search were assessed for eligibility first by their title and abstract and subsequently by a more detailed review of the source by two independent authors for the most recent data regarding LB. Eleven sources of incidence data were included in the review representing 17 countries in total. Incidence estimates were calculated from reported values and population data.<div class="boxTitle">Results</div>Countries in Western Europe have a large variance in the incidence rates. The highest reported incidences for LB were reported in southern Sweden with 464/100 000 and the lowest in Italy of 0.001/100 000. The unweighted mean for the included data provided an incidence rate of 56.3/100 000 persons per year, equating to ∼232 125 cases in 1 year throughout the region. The calculated population-weighted average incidence rate for the regional burden of LB in Western Europe was 22.05 cases per 100 000 person-years.<div class="boxTitle">Conclusions</div>LB is a continually emerging disease and the most common zoonotic infection in Western Europe approaching endemic proportions in many European countries. The population-weighted incidence rate has been estimated by this study to be 22.04/100 000 person-years. Concordant and well-conducted surveillance and disease awareness should continue to be encouraged to monitor LB, as tick numbers and activity are increasing, leading to greater risks of infection.</span>

Posted on 8 March 2016 | 6:00 pm

Food environments of young people: linking individual behaviour to environmental context

<span class="paragraphSection"><div class="boxTitle">Abstract</div><div class="boxTitle">Background</div>We aimed to identify and characterize the food environments from which young people obtain food and to explore associations between the type of food environment and food intakes.<div class="boxTitle">Methods</div>Young people (<span style="font-style:italic;">n</span> = 86, mean age 17 years; combined data of two sequential pilot studies (collected in 2008–09) and a study conducted in 2011–12) recorded in 4-day self-complete food diaries what food they consumed and where food was sourced. Nutrient, fruit and vegetable intake was calculated according to the source of food, categorized using a food environment classification tool.<div class="boxTitle">Results</div>Over 4 days, respondents sourced food from an average of 4.3 different food environments. Home food was used daily and was more favourable in terms of nutrient profile than out-of-home food. Food sourced from specialist outlets, convenience stores and retail bakers had the highest energy density. Food from retail bakers and ‘takeaway and fast food’ outlets were the richest sources of fat while vending machines and convenience stores had the highest percentage of energy from sugar.<div class="boxTitle">Conclusions</div>This work provides details of ‘where’ young people obtain food and the nutritional consequences of choosing those food environments. While home food was a significant contributor to total dietary intake, food was obtained from a broad range of environments; particularly takeaway, fast food and education establishments.</span>

Posted on 7 March 2016 | 6:00 pm

Developing and validating a new national remote health advice syndromic surveillance system in England

<span class="paragraphSection"><div class="boxTitle">Abstract</div><div class="boxTitle">Background</div>Public Health England (PHE) coordinates a suite of real-time national syndromic surveillance systems monitoring general practice, emergency department and remote health advice data. We describe the development and informal evaluation of a new syndromic surveillance system using NHS 111 remote health advice data.<div class="boxTitle">Methods</div>NHS 111 syndromic indicators were monitored daily at national and local level. Statistical models were applied to daily data to identify significant exceedances; statistical baselines were developed for each syndrome and area using a multi-level hierarchical mixed effects model.<div class="boxTitle">Results</div>Between November 2013 and October 2014, there were on average 19 095 NHS 111 calls each weekday and 43 084 each weekend day in the PHE dataset. There was a predominance of females using the service (57%); highest percentage of calls received was in the age group 1–4 years (14%). This system was used to monitor respiratory and gastrointestinal infections over the winter of 2013–14, the potential public health impact of severe flooding across parts of southern England and poor air quality episodes across England in April 2014.<div class="boxTitle">Conclusions</div>This new system complements and supplements the existing PHE syndromic surveillance systems and is now integrated into the routine daily processes that form this national syndromic surveillance service.</span>

Posted on 6 March 2016 | 6:00 pm

Evidence of moderation effects in predicting active transport to school

<span class="paragraphSection"><div class="boxTitle">Abstract</div><div class="boxTitle">Background</div>Distance from home to school is an important influence on the decision to use active transport (AT); however, ecological perspectives would suggest this relationship may be moderated by individual, interpersonal and environmental factors. This study investigates whether (i) gender, (ii) biological maturation, (iii) perceived family support for physical activity (PA) and (iv) multiple deprivation moderate the relationship between distance to school and AT.<div class="boxTitle">Methods</div>A total of 611 children (11–12 years old, 334 females) were recruited from schools in Leicestershire, UK. Gender, family support for PA, and AT were self-reported. Home and school postcodes were used to determine multiple deprivation and distance to school (km). Predicted age at peak height velocity was used to indicate biological maturation.<div class="boxTitle">Results</div>Logistic regressions revealed the main effects explained 40.2% of the variance in AT; however; distance to school was the only significant predictor. Further analyses revealed that distance to school had a greater negative impact on the use of AT in late-maturing (OR: 3.60, CI: 1.45–8.96), less deprived (OR: 3.54, CI: 1.17–10.72) and children with low family support of PA (OR: 0.26, CI: 0.11–0.61).<div class="boxTitle">Conclusions</div>This study provides evidence that, although distance to school might be the strongest predictor of AT, this relationship is complex.</span>

Posted on 5 March 2016 | 6:00 pm

Has increasing public health awareness influenced the size of testicular tumours among adult populations over the last 40 years?

<span class="paragraphSection"><div class="boxTitle">Abstract</div><div class="boxTitle">Background</div>Testicular cancer is the commonest malignancy in young men. Improvements in survival rates have led to campaigns to raise awareness in at-risk men. We assessed the changing size of testicular tumours given the public health initiatives promoting testicular self-examination (TSE).<div class="boxTitle">Methods</div>Retrospective analysis of men (≥16 years) undergoing orchidectomy for testicular cancer at our institution over two time periods (1975–85 and 2007–12) were identified using our cancer registry. Histopathology reports were used to record testicular tumour size as the maximum measured dimension. Significance was indicated by <span style="font-style:italic;">P</span> < 0.05.<div class="boxTitle">Results</div>Of 305 orchidectomies performed, 215 had histopathology reports available. Median age was 34 years (16–75 years). Mean tumour size was 7.2 cm in 1975–85 and 4.1 cm in 2007–12 showing a significant reduction (<span style="font-style:italic;">P</span> = 0.02). Significant reduction was seen in all age groups except >60 years. Furthermore there was a significant increase in proportion of men presenting in the youngest age group (16–29 years) in the 2007–12 cohort (43 versus 29%, <span style="font-style:italic;">P</span> = 0.02).<div class="boxTitle">Conclusion</div>The trend in reduction of tumour size at presentation and increased proportion of younger men presenting with testicular cancer supports an increased awareness. Promotion of TSE and public education should remain important initiatives given the increasing incidence of testicular cancer. Awareness still needs addressing in older men.</span>

Posted on 2 March 2016 | 6:00 pm

Antimicrobial resistance in the WHO African region: current status and roadmap for action

<span class="paragraphSection"><div class="boxTitle">Abstract</div>The high burden of communicable diseases in African countries engenders extensive antimicrobial use and subsequent resistance with substantial health, financial and societal implications. A desktop analysis to ascertain whether countries in the WHO African region have implemented the WHO Policy Package to combat antimicrobial resistance (AMR) revealed that just two countries (4.3%) have national AMR plans in place, 14.9% (7) have overarching national infection prevention and control (IPC) policies, 93.6% (44) have essential medicines lists and 91.5% (43) have national medicines policies and treatment guidelines intimating rational use. None currently have representative national surveillance systems nor do any incentivize research and development into new medicines and diagnostics. A regional situational analysis to identify scalable good practices within African, resource-constrained country contexts under the auspices of WHO-AFRO is a necessary initial step towards the development of national and regional action plans in concert with incremental progress towards achieving the objectives of the policy package and global action plan. While it is clearly the responsibility of governments to develop, resource and implement plans, regular reporting to and/or monitoring and evaluation by an overarching body such as WHO-AFRO will ensure persistent incremental progress within continuous quality and accountability improvement paradigms.</span>

Posted on 2 March 2016 | 6:00 pm

A novel strategy to reduce very late HIV diagnosis in high-prevalence areas in South-West England: serious incident audit

<span class="paragraphSection"><div class="boxTitle">Abstract</div><div class="boxTitle">Background</div>Very late diagnosis of HIV is a serious public health issue. We used serious incident reporting (SIR) to identify and address reasons for late diagnoses across the patient pathway.<div class="boxTitle">Methods</div>Cases of very late HIV diagnosis were reported via SIR in two 6-month batches between 2011 and 2012 in Bournemouth, Poole and Bristol. Case notes were reviewed for missed opportunities for earlier diagnosis using a root-cause analysis tool.<div class="boxTitle">Results</div>A total of 33 patients (aged 30–67 years, 66% male) were diagnosed very late. Although the majority were white British (<span style="font-style:italic;">n</span> = 17), Black African (<span style="font-style:italic;">n</span> = 9) and Eastern European (<span style="font-style:italic;">n</span> = 4) ethnicities were over-represented. Twenty-four (73%) patients had clinical indicator conditions for HIV, 30 (91%) had a risk factor for HIV acquisition, with 13 (39%) having 2 or more (men-who-have-sex-with-men (<span style="font-style:italic;">n</span> = 11), partner HIV positive (<span style="font-style:italic;">n</span> = 11), from high-prevalence area (<span style="font-style:italic;">n</span> = 12)). Actions resulting from SIR included increasing awareness of indicator conditions, HIV education days within primary care, and initiatives to increase testing within hospital specialities.<div class="boxTitle">Conclusions</div>SIR allowed identification of reasons for very late HIV diagnosis and provided an impetus for initiatives to address them. SIR may be part of an effective strategy to prevent late diagnosis of HIV which would have important benefits for individual and population health.</span>

Posted on 23 February 2016 | 6:00 pm

Factors associated with access to care and healthcare utilization in the homeless population of England

<span class="paragraphSection"><div class="boxTitle">Abstract</div><div class="boxTitle">Background</div>People experiencing homelessness are known to have complex health needs, which are often compounded by poor access to healthcare. This study investigates the individual-level factors associated with access to care and healthcare utilization among homeless people in England.<div class="boxTitle">Methods</div>A cross-sectional sample of 2505 homeless people from 19 areas of England was used to investigate associations with access to care and healthcare utilization.<div class="boxTitle">Results</div>Rough sleepers were much less likely to be registered with a general practitioner (GP) (odds ratio (OR) 0.45, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.30–0.66) than single homeless in accommodation (reference group) or the hidden homeless (OR 1.48, 95% CI 0.88–2.50). Those who had recently been refused registration by a GP or dentist also had lower odds of being admitted to hospital (OR 0.67, 95% CI 0.49–0.91) or using an ambulance (OR 0.73, 95% CI 0.54–0.99).<div class="boxTitle">Conclusions</div>The most vulnerable homeless people face the greatest barriers to utilizing healthcare. Rough sleepers have particularly low rates of GP registration and this appears to have a knock-on effect on admission to hospital. Improving primary care access for the homeless population could ensure that some of the most vulnerable people in society are able to access vital hospital services which they are currently missing out on.</span>

Posted on 17 February 2016 | 6:00 pm

Adolescent self-harm in the community: an update on prevalence using a self-report survey of adolescents aged 13–18 in England

<span class="paragraphSection"><div class="boxTitle">Abstract</div><div class="boxTitle">Background</div>To establish an estimate of prevalence in a nationally representative sample of community adolescents. To examine associations between self-harm and wellbeing.<div class="boxTitle">Methods</div>An anonymous self-report survey completed by 2000 adolescents aged 13–18 years across England. Wellbeing was measured using the Warwick–Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale (WEMWBS).<div class="boxTitle">Results</div>In total 15.5% (<span style="font-style:italic;">n</span> = 309) of participants reported ever having self-harmed (95% confidence intervals 13.9–17.1). The median age of onset was 13.0 years. Females aged 13–15 years reported the highest incidence of self-harm within the past year (54.9%). Cutting elsewhere (other than on the arms) was more prevalent amongst females (56.4%). The mean wellbeing score for the whole sample (45.6) was lower than the WEMWBS validation score (48.8). Self-harm was associated with a significantly lower wellbeing score, with mean scores of 38.7 (ever self-harmed) and 46.8 (never self-harmed).<div class="boxTitle">Conclusions</div>Self-harm remains prevalent amongst adolescents aged 13–18 years in England. An awareness of the age of peak incidence and risks associated with preferred harming behaviours is crucial during assessment and intervention. The promotion of wellbeing is important for all young people. Further study is needed on the ways in which wellbeing may prevent, or ameliorate, the distress associated with self-harm.</span>

Posted on 16 February 2016 | 6:00 pm

Corrigendum

Posted on 16 February 2016 | 6:00 pm

Reducing low birth weight: prioritizing action to address modifiable risk factors

<span class="paragraphSection"><div class="boxTitle">Abstract</div><div class="boxTitle">Background</div>Low birth weight (LBW) affects 6.9% of all UK births and has remained largely unchanged for many years. The United Nations and the World Health Assembly have set targets to substantially reduce global incidence. Understanding the contribution of modifiable risk factors to the burden of LBW is required to ensure appropriate interventions are in place to achieve this reduction.<div class="boxTitle">Methods</div>Data from published studies on the risks from key modifiable factors were used alongside prevalence data from the Welsh population to calculate the population attributable risk for each factor individually and in combination.<div class="boxTitle">Results</div>Fourteen risk factors accounted for nearly half of LBW births, and 60% of those to younger mothers (<25 years). Tobacco smoke exposure was the largest contributor. We estimated that smoking in pregnancy was a factor in one in eight LBW births, increasing to one in five for women aged under 25.<div class="boxTitle">Conclusions</div>Risk factors are interrelated and inequitably distributed within the population. Exposure to one factor increases the likelihood of exposure to a constellation of factors further increasing risk. Action to address LBW must consider groups where the risk factors are most prevalent and address these risk factors together using multi-component interventions.</span>

Posted on 15 February 2016 | 6:00 pm

Associations between self-reported concussion with later violence injury among Australian early adolescents

<span class="paragraphSection"><div class="boxTitle">Abstract</div><div class="boxTitle">Background</div>There is growing research finding associations between adolescents' concussion and negative outcomes, including violence, rarely however are the experiences of community-based early adolescents considered.<div class="boxTitle">Methods</div>This study examined associations between reports of concussion (Time-1) and reports of violence 1-year later (Time-2). Australian adolescents from 13 high-schools completed two identical surveys administered 12-months apart (<span style="font-style:italic;">n</span> = 734 retained, initial mean age = 13.45).<div class="boxTitle">Results</div>At the first survey, 91 students (13%) reported they had a concussion, and of these students, 40% reported seeing a doctor/attending hospital during the prior 3 months. Both self-reported experience of violent injury (from getting in a fight) and violent behaviour (getting in a fight) were predicted by reports of concussion in Year 9. This prediction held, when adding sex, Year 9 reports of violence, alcohol use, truancy and engagement in passenger and driving risk-taking to logistic regression models. Year 9 concussion was not predictive of later injury in other contexts, including transportation, falls or sports.<div class="boxTitle">Conclusion</div>The study highlights the need to understand concussion among community-based early adolescents including consider associations with violence.</span>

Posted on 11 February 2016 | 6:00 pm

Socioeconomic inequalities in injuries treated in primary care in Madrid, Spain

<span class="paragraphSection"><div class="boxTitle">Abstract</div><div class="boxTitle">Background</div>Socioeconomic inequalities in injury morbidity are an important yet understudied issue in Southern Europe. This study analysed the injuries treated in primary care in the Community of Madrid, Spain, by socioeconomic status (SES), sex and age.<div class="boxTitle">Methods</div>This was a cross-sectional study of injuries registered in the primary care electronic medical records of the Madrid Health Service in 2012. Incidence stratified by sex, SES and type of injury were calculated. Poisson regression was performed.<div class="boxTitle">Results</div>A statistically significant upward trend in global injury incidence was observed with decreasing SES in all age groups. By type of injury, the largest differences were observed in injuries by foreign body in men aged 15–44 and in poisonings in girls under 15 years of age. Burns risk also stood out in the group of girls under 15 years of age with the lowest SES. In the group above 74 years of age, wounds, bruises and sprains had the lowest SES differences in both sexes, and the risk of fractures was lower in the most socioeconomically advantaged group.<div class="boxTitle">Conclusion</div>People with lower SES were at a greater risk of injury. The relationship between SES and injury varies by type of injury and age.</span>

Posted on 10 February 2016 | 6:00 pm

The impact of daycare attendance on outdoor free play in young children

<span class="paragraphSection"><div class="boxTitle">Abstract</div><div class="boxTitle">Background</div>Outdoor free play is important for healthy growth and development in early childhood. Recent studies suggest that the majority of time spent in daycare is sedentary. The objective of this study was to determine whether there was an association between daycare attendance and parent-reported outdoor free play.<div class="boxTitle">Methods</div>Healthy children aged 1–5 years recruited to The Applied Research Group for Kids! (TARGet Kids!), a primary care research network, were included. Parents reported daycare use, outdoor free play and potential confounding variables. Multivariable linear regression was used to determine the association between daycare attendance and outdoor free play, adjusted for age, sex, maternal ethnicity, maternal education, neighborhood income and season.<div class="boxTitle">Results</div>There were 2810 children included in this study. Children aged 1 to <3 years (<span style="font-style:italic;">n</span> = 1388) and ≥3 to 5 years (<span style="font-style:italic;">n</span> = 1284) who attended daycare had 14.70 min less (95% CI −20.52, −8.87; <span style="font-style:italic;">P</span> < 0.01) and 9.44 min less (95% CI −13.67, −5.20; <span style="font-style:italic;">P</span> < 0.01) per day of outdoor free play compared with children who did not attend daycare, respectively.<div class="boxTitle">Conclusions</div>Children who spend more time in daycare have less parent-reported outdoor free play. Parents may be relying on daycare to provide opportunity for outdoor free play and interventions to promote increased active play opportunities outside of daycare are needed.</span>

Posted on 8 February 2016 | 6:00 pm

Women's interest in a personal breast cancer risk assessment and lifestyle advice at NHS mammography screening

<span class="paragraphSection"><div class="boxTitle">Abstract</div><div class="boxTitle">Background</div>Although mortality from breast cancer is declining, incidence continues to increase and is often detected at routine NHS screening. Most middle aged and older women in England attend for screening every 3 years. Assessing their personal breast cancer risk and providing preventative lifestyle advice could help to further reduce breast cancer incidence.<div class="boxTitle">Methods</div>A cross-sectional, self-complete postal survey measured attendees' interest in having a personal risk assessment, expected impact on screening attendance, knowledge of associations between lifestyle and breast cancer and preferred ways of accessing preventative lifestyle advice.<div class="boxTitle">Results</div>A total of 1803/4948 (36.4%) completed questionnaires were returned. Most participants (93.7%) expressed interest in a personal risk assessment and 95% (1713/1803) believed it would make no difference or encourage re-attendance. Two-thirds (1208/1803) associated lifestyle with breast cancer, but many were unaware of specific risks such as weight gain, obesity, alcohol consumption and physical inactivity. NHS sourced advice was expected to be more credible than other sources, and booklets, brief counselling or an interactive website were most preferred for accessing this.<div class="boxTitle">Conclusions</div>Attendees appear to welcome an intervention that would facilitate more proactive clinical and lifestyle prevention and address critical research gaps in breast cancer prevention and early detection.</span>

Posted on 30 January 2016 | 6:00 pm

Impact of combined lifestyle factors on metabolic syndrome in Korean men

<span class="paragraphSection"><div class="boxTitle">Abstract</div><div class="boxTitle">Background</div>The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between combined poor lifestyle factors and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Korean men.<div class="boxTitle">Methods</div>Data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010 were classified according to the number and combination patterns of poor lifestyle factors, namely, current smoking, high-risk alcohol use, low physical activity and poor dietary habits. We analyzed the association between the combined poor lifestyle factors and MetS. The definition of MetS was based on the joint interim statement of the International Diabetes Federation Task Force on Epidemiology and Prevention in 2009.<div class="boxTitle">Results</div>A total of 1408 men aged 20–75 were included in this study. Approximately one-third of the 30–49 age group had ≥3 combined poor lifestyle factors. Compared with those with no poor lifestyle factors, the ORs for MetS were 3.57 (95% CI 1.16–11.02), 3.62 (95% CI 1.18–11.08) and 6.31 (95% CI 2.08–19.26) in subjects with one, two and three or more poor lifestyle factors, respectively. When current smoking, high-risk alcohol use and low physical activity were concurrently present, the ORs for MetS, hyperglycemia, and hypertriglyceridemia were 14.32 (95% CI 3.64–56.30), 4.49 (95% CI 1.62–12.40), and 5.07 (95% CI 2.18–11.81), respectively.<div class="boxTitle">Conclusions</div>Comprehensive lifestyle modifications need to be stressed in public health programs.</span>

Posted on 30 January 2016 | 6:00 pm

Experiences of accessing obesity surgery on the NHS: a qualitative study

<span class="paragraphSection"><div class="boxTitle">Abstract</div><div class="boxTitle">Background</div>Although surgical treatment is recommended for morbid obesity where other interventions have failed, there is evidence that access to NHS surgery is heavily rationed. This study aimed to investigate how patients experienced accessing referrals for obesity surgery.<div class="boxTitle">Methods</div>Data collection was undertaken using in-depth interviews with patients and clinicians working in a specialist secondary care facility, and analysis took a constant comparative approach.<div class="boxTitle">Results</div>Twenty-two participants with morbid obesity were followed up for a period of up to 3 years. All participants had made multiple attempts to lose weight prior to consulting their GPs yet felt this was rarely acknowledged by clinicians. Participants were frustrated when they received insufficient support to comply with primary care interventions, and when it came to obtaining a referral to secondary care, most had to raise this issue with GPs themselves.<div class="boxTitle">Conclusions</div>There is an urgent need for interventions for morbid obesity in primary care that are accessible to patients to facilitate weight loss and prevent weight re-gain. For those at very high weights, better integration between primary and secondary care is required to ensure appropriate and timely referral for those who need assessment for surgery.</span>

Posted on 30 January 2016 | 6:00 pm

Sleep duration and adiposity in early adolescents

Posted on 30 January 2016 | 6:00 pm

Measuring the impact of Health Trainers Services on health and health inequalities: does the service's data collection and reporting system provide reliable information?

<span class="paragraphSection"><div class="boxTitle">Abstract</div><div class="boxTitle">Background</div>The Health Trainers Service is one of the few public health policies where a bespoke database—the Data Collection and Reporting System (DCRS)—was developed to monitor performance. We seek to understand the context within which local services and staff have used the DCRS and to consider how this might influence interpretation of collected data.<div class="boxTitle">Methods</div>In-depth case studies of six local services purposively sampled to represent the range of service provider arrangements, including detailed interviews with key stakeholders (<span style="font-style:italic;">n</span> = 118).<div class="boxTitle">Results</div>Capturing detailed information on activity with clients was alien to many health trainers' work practices. This related to technical challenges, but it also ran counter to beliefs as to how a ‘lay’ service would operate. Interviewees noted the inadequacy of the dataset to capture all client impacts; that is, it did not enable them to input information about issues a client living in a deprived neighbourhood might experience and seek help to address.<div class="boxTitle">Conclusions</div>The utility of the DCRS may be compromised both by incomplete ascertainment of activity and by incorrect data inputted by some Health Trainers. The DCRS is also underestimate the effectiveness of work health trainers have undertaken to address ‘upstream’ factors affecting client health.</span>

Posted on 25 January 2016 | 6:00 pm

Access to water provides economic relief through enhanced relationships in Kenya

<span class="paragraphSection"><div class="boxTitle">Abstract</div><div class="boxTitle">Introduction</div>Sub-Saharan Africa is comprised of low- and middle-income countries subject to the residual effects of chronic poverty. Poverty contributes to health disparities and social inequities. Public health strategies and solutions seek to remedy the effects of poverty. Providing access to quality water is one priority public health project that alleviates adverse health effects, but may have additional outcomes. Previous research has not thoroughly reviewed the economic relief and relationship changes from implemented water interventions.<div class="boxTitle">Methods</div>A qualitative phenomenological approach used 52 semi-structured interviews to understand relationship experiences among primary water gatherers and their families after implemented water interventions in a community. This study took place throughout the historically semi-arid eastern region in Kitui, Kenya, where community members have been beneficiaries of various water interventions.<div class="boxTitle">Results</div>Prior to the water intervention, relationships were strained because of economic hardships. Households experienced economic difficulties in paying for children's school fees, buying bricks for housing structures, having water for house gardens, trees for shade in the compound, crops and providing water for their animals. After receiving access to water, relationships improved, because families were able to discuss and address economic challenges. Additional financial revenue was gained and used to pay for water to make bricks to sell or use on housing structures, expand on house gardens and agricultural crops, build new businesses, purchase water for animals, and construct local water spouts near the household.<div class="boxTitle">Discussion</div>Access to water improved relationships, which encouraged economic growth. This information provides a critical component in understanding the interconnected nature between access to water, poverty and family relationships. Ultimately, this research suggests an increased need for access to quality water worldwide to improve both economic situations and relationships in low- and middle-income countries.</span>

Posted on 25 January 2016 | 6:00 pm

A family-based model for Iranian women's health: a grounded theory study

<span class="paragraphSection"><div class="boxTitle">Abstract</div><div class="boxTitle">Background</div>In many societies, women are vulnerable to specific situations and inequalities, which may negatively impact their own and their family's health. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore Iranian women's perspectives on this issue and to develop a categorical model for their health.<div class="boxTitle">Methods</div>The study was conducted using a grounded theory approach via 25 semi-structured interviews.<div class="boxTitle">Results</div>The results revealed that family dynamism was the core variable and identified four main categories: understanding of health, reduction of women's health, the pleasure and difficulties of motherhood, cultural and/or social factors influencing women's health.<div class="boxTitle">Conclusion</div>Policymakers should consider policies that empower women, reduce gender inequality and provide social security to maximize the probability of women being healthy.</span>

Posted on 25 January 2016 | 6:00 pm

Quality of life in caregivers with and without chronic disease: Welsh Health Survey, 2013

<span class="paragraphSection"><div class="boxTitle">Abstract</div><div class="boxTitle">Background</div>The aim of the present study was to investigate and compare quality of life after regular care provision in people with and without currently treated chronic disease in a country-wide and population-based setting.<div class="boxTitle">Methods</div>Data were retrieved from Welsh Health Survey, 2013. Information on demographics, lifestyle factors, health conditions, regular care provision and quality of life was obtained by household interview. Chi-square test, <span style="font-style:italic;">t</span>-test and survey-weighted multi-nominal regression modelling were performed.<div class="boxTitle">Results</div>Of 15 007 Welsh adults aged 16 and above, 2751 (19.1%) people reported that they have been giving care for any sick, disabled or frail person. They tended to be aged 40–74, being female, education <degree, body mass index >25, physically active, current smokers and living in second-hand smoking households. In caregivers with current chronic disease (<span style="font-style:italic;">n</span> = 1562), they have experienced physical health limits, bodily pains, emotional problems, less calm and less cheerful. In caregivers without current chronic diseases (<span style="font-style:italic;">n</span> = 1151), they have experienced physical health limits, bodily pains, less cheerful, downhearted and unhappiness.<div class="boxTitle">Conclusions</div>This is the first study to examine quality of life in caregivers both with and without currently treated chronic disease. Longitudinal monitoring and increasing education, training and support to lessen caregiving burden would be suggested.</span>

Posted on 24 January 2016 | 6:00 pm

Associations between neighbourhood environmental factors and the uptake and effectiveness of a brief intervention to increase physical activity: findings from deprived urban communities in an English city

<span class="paragraphSection"><div class="boxTitle">Abstract</div><div class="boxTitle">Background</div>Evidence suggests behavioural interventions may exacerbate health inequalities, potentially due to differences in uptake or effectiveness. We used a physical activity intervention targeting deprived communities to identify neighbourhood-level factors that might explain differences in programme impact.<div class="boxTitle">Methods</div>Individuals aged 40–65 were sent a postal invitation offering a brief intervention to increase physical activity. We used postcodes linkage to determine whether neighbourhood indicators of deprivation, housing, crime and proximity to green spaces and leisure facilities predicted uptake of the initial invitation or an increase in physical activity level in those receiving the brief intervention.<div class="boxTitle">Results</div>A total of 4134 (6.8%) individuals responded to the initial invitation and of those receiving the intervention and contactable after 3 months, 486 (51.6%) reported an increase in physical activity. Area deprivation scores linked to postcodes predicted intervention uptake, but not intervention effectiveness. Neighbourhood indicators did not predict either uptake or intervention effectiveness.<div class="boxTitle">Conclusions</div>The main barrier to using brief intervention invitations to increase physical activity in deprived, middle-aged populations was the low uptake of an intervention requiring significant time and motivation from participants. Once individuals have taken up the intervention offer, neighbourhood characteristics did not appear to be significant barriers to successful lifestyle change.</span>

Posted on 23 January 2016 | 6:00 pm